By David C. Luckham, Friedrich W. von Henke, Bernd Krieg-Brueckner, Olaf Owe
This reference guide of ANNA is one other quantity addressed to the ADA neighborhood. ANNA is a language extension of ADA to incorporate amenities for officially specifying the meant habit of ADA courses. it's designed to fulfill a perceived have to increase ADA with specific machine-processable annotations in order that good confirmed formal tools of specification and documentation will be utilized to ADA courses. the present ANNA layout contains annotations of all ADA constructs other than tasking. related extensions for formal specification might be made to different Algol-like languages similar to Pascal, PL/1, Concurrent Pascal, and Modula; primarily, those extensions will be subsets of ANNA. The layout of ANNA was once undertaken from the start with 4 crucial issues: 1. developing annotations can be effortless for the ADA programmer and will count up to attainable on notation and ideas of ADA. 2. ANNA may still own language gains which are generic within the specification and documentation of courses. three. ANNA may still offer a framework during which a number of the proven theories of officially specifying courses can be utilized to ADA. four. Annotations can be both like minded for various attainable functions in the course of the lifestyles cycle of a application. Such functions comprise not just trying out, debugging and formal verification of a entire application, but in addition specification of software elements throughout the previous phases of necessities research and application design.
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Additional info for ANNA A Language for Annotating Ada Programs
Examples of annotations on access types. type FRAME is access MATRIX; --~ ---- subtype DIAGONAL_FRAME is FRAME; w h e r e X : DIAGONAL_FRAME => X . 3). 8 ANNOTATIONSOF ACCESSTYPES 36 ANNA REFERENCE MANUAL type T is access S; w h e r e X : T => X = n u l l ; T consists of the hUff value. s u b t y p e T1 is T; w h e r e X : T1 => X isin T'COLLECTION; Values in T1 are constrained to be those values of T that have been allocated at this point. The set of values of T1 will usu'ally be a subset of T; the state, T'COLLECTION, is evaluated when the subtype declaration is elaborated, analogously to an Ada range constraint with dynamic bounds.
11 QUANTIFIED EXPRESSIONS 4. , the set of all possible access values. In Anna quantification is defined only over sets of values of a type. However it is possible to construct expressions using quantification over an access type that are equivalent to quantification over the set of designated objects in the associated collection. For example, f o r a l l X : T => P ( X . 4) as f o r a l l X : T => P(T'COLLECTTON(X)); since X i s i n T'COLLECTION is true if and only if T'COLLECTION(X) is defined, the quantified expression above will be true exactly if P(V) is true for the values V of all objects in the collection.
4 EXPRESSIONS IN ANNOTATIONS 4. 1 Logical Operators In addition to the Ada logical operators, Anna provides operators for logical implication and equivalence. Operator Operation Operand Type Result Type --* *-* implication equivalence BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN BOOLEAN The implication operator ~ has the usual mathematical meaning. A ~, B is defined as (A --* B) and (B --* A). Notes: -* and ~ have the meaning of _< and = on boolean expressions; however, their precedence is the lowest of all operators allowed in boolean-valued expressions and subexpressions.
ANNA A Language for Annotating Ada Programs by David C. Luckham, Friedrich W. von Henke, Bernd Krieg-Brueckner, Olaf Owe