By Cesare Rossi
This booklet describes innovations and designs of historical engineers which are the precursors of the current. The a long time customarily variety from three hundred B.C. to 1600 A.D. with a few exceptions from earlier than and after this era. As for the very historical ones, the booklet describes innovations (documented by way of archaeological reveals almost always from Pompei, Ercolano and Stabia) that in most cases are little or no recognized and occasionally no longer identified in any respect. a few innovations are within the army box. for the reason that (unfortunately) many innovations and technological concepts were conceived ranging from army purposes. The booklet is split into 5 components. the 1st 4 components pertain to convinced fields and current innovations in general conceived as much as the past due Roman Empire. innovations which are consultant of the engineering genius of the ancients and which may be regarded as milestones, each one of their respective box. The 5th half refers to fields of engineering (such as textiles and automation) during which very important concepts have been conceived additionally in additional fresh centuries. for every of the innovations offered, even the traditional ones of many centuries previous, the authors supply 3 components of analysis and reference: • Written files (the classics) • Iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) • Archaeological findings.
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Extra resources for Ancient Engineers' Inventions - Precursors of the Present
This device, as far as we know, is the first log example. It has to be pointed out that, “log” in English indicates the piece of wood that was tied to a small rope and was thrown overboard. The rope had a number of knots, one every 1/10 of a nautical mile. By means of an hourglass, the number of knots passed in the unit of time was counted, hence the speed was computed. This device, in the shape that has been just described, was “invented” in the 18th century, that is to say more than 18 centuries after the naval odometer by Vitruvius, and it is clearly much more unsophisticated.
Another purpose of the mechanism was to show the Metonic cycle (235 synodic months ≈ 19 years) and the lunar year (12 synodic months). 3 The mechanism of Antikythera 51 225? B1 A1 B2 64 L1 36 M1 254 19 SUN POSITION 54 L2 E1 32 96 B1 DRIVE WHEEL INNER SHAFT A 45 CONTRATE CRANK HANDLE MOON POSITION 38 C1 24 48 32 83 D1 C2 FRONT BASE PLATE ? 02 16 64 N 01 32 48 E4 ? E2i 32 M2 4 YEAR DIAL 19 4 K1 32 J 64 BACK B4 32 D2 127 E2ii 32 222 DIFFERENTIAL TURNTABLE 192 b pope K2 48 48 E5 48 F1 F2 30 60 E3 G2 60 G1 20 H2 15 H1 60 I SYNODIC MONTH 235 LUNAR YEAR 235 12 Fig.
For this reason in the present chapter we will look at those that were available in ancient times. What we call today “computing machines” were invented and developed after the 16th century but, as will become clear in the following sections, older devices are, without any doubt, legitimate precursors in the art of computation. Some of them show a surprising skill and modernity on the part of their ancient inventors. 1 The abacus The abacus is the oldest computation device and is found in almost any population in every part of the planet.
Ancient Engineers' Inventions - Precursors of the Present by Cesare Rossi