By Patrick Saint-Dizier
This e-book is an creation to Prolog (£rQgramming in ~ic). It offers the elemental foundations of Prolog and simple and basic programming tools. This e-book is written for programmers accustomed to different programming languages, in addition to for rookies in desktop technological know-how, keen to have an unique advent to programming. The procedure followed during this booklet is therefore in accordance with methodological components including a few pragmatic facets. The publication consists of 2 components. within the fIrst half the foremost points of programming in Prolog are offered step-by-step. every one new element is illustrated via brief examples and workouts. the second one half consists of extra built examples, that are usually video games, that illustrate significant features of synthetic intelligence. extra complicated books are given within the bibliography and may permit the reader to deepen his or her be aware of ledge of Prolog. Prolog used to be first designed in France at OJ.A., Marseille, with a particular syntax. we've got followed the following a extra universal notation, outlined at Edinburgh, which has a tendency to be an implicit norm. on the finish of every bankruptcy of the 1st half, there are routines that the reader is invited to do and to check on his or her computing device. whole solutions are given in Appendix A, on the finish of the book.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Programming in Prolog
Note carefully that it is a variable that is replaced by a tenn, and not the opposite. To avoid infinite loops, it is necessary that the tenn that replaces a variable does not contain any occurrences of this variable. That is, there must be no substitutions of the type x -> f( ••• ,X, ... ). If this case arises, it is necessary to rename the X in f. • f( ••• »»). Consider the substitution S(X,T), which replaces all the occurrences of variable X with the term T in another tenn. For example, S(X,a(b,Z» applied to the tenn V = b(X,g(Y,X» 34 Chapter 4.
This program could be slightly modified to make the path that joins X to Y more explicit. This would require a list, a Chapter 7. Recursion 55 structure that we shall see in Chapter 9. The program given above for finding a path in a graph may appear arbitrary. We could also have written, for example, path(X,Y) :- arc(X,Y). path(X,Y) :- path(X,Z), arc(Z,Y). which is logically equivalent to the preceding program. However, when we consider the execution strategy of clauses in Prolog, it appears that the second clause introduces an infinite loop because Z remains free until the execution of arc(Z,Y).
1. Advantages of Rules We now consider an example to introduce the concept of a rule. Consider the relation child _ of(X, V). which states in a general fashion that X is the child of Y, and the following knowledge base: child of(john,jack). child-of(catherine,marcel). child:of(edith,sylvia). child of(philip,edith). child-of(sylvia,julie). child:of(sylvia,john). child_of(max,catherine). Suppose that to the facts shown above we now wish to add the relation grandparent(X, V). which states that X is a grandparent of Y.
An Introduction to Programming in Prolog by Patrick Saint-Dizier