By Stephen Grossberg
Those books collect fresh neural versions of imaginative and prescient, speech and language attractiveness and bear in mind, cognitive self-organization, conditioning, reinforcement, motivation, realization, circadian rhythms, motor regulate, and sure psychological issues. as well as unifying and predicting interdisciplinary info from psychology, psychophysiology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and anatomy, the paintings indicates new real-time circuit designs for desktop imaginative and prescient and speech units, self-organizing development attractiveness machines, parallel processors, and adaptive robots.
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Extra resources for Adaptive Brain
This type of drive reduction occurs slowly in time. The sudden reduction of a reinforcing cue or the sudden nonoccurrence of an expected reinforcer can also have reinforcing effects, but these rapid events do not reduce a drive input, although they do modify the activity of the drive representations (Grossberg, 1982a, 1984). 20. G o Mechanism, Amplifiers, Now P r i n t Several authors have proposed alternatives to the drive reduction hypothesis to explain data about reinforcement. Each author developed his own vocabulary to describe his concepts, but all of them seem to have been building towards similar mechanisms.
C o n d i t i o n e d Reinforcers, Drives, I n c e n t i v e M o t i v a t i o n , and Habits At this point, I can begin t o psychologically interpret network mechanisms, use t h e interpretation t o sharpen and modify classical psychological theories, and explain various data as manifestations of the adaptive designs that organisms have evolved t o solve the synchronization problem. Chapter 1 22 DRIVE INPUT Figure 11. The drive representations are also constructed from polyvalent cells whose firing requires convergence of a specific internal drive input plus a nonspecific external cue input.
In particular, arousal is not merely an energizer, as Hull (1943) or Hebb (1955) suggested. It can have a cue function also, albeit a cue function concerning the internal state of L rather than the external state of the world. Equations (3) and (4) describe cues that are related to hunger. Similar equations can also be written for cues that are related to thirst, sexual arousal, or fear, among other internal organismic states. Moreover, the same cue could have served as the CS for UCS's that are relevant to any of these states, just as a bell associated with shock can elicit autonomic signs of fear, whereas the same bell associated instead with food can elicit salivation.
Adaptive Brain by Stephen Grossberg